[Comments or questions]
Copyright © 1996-2001 jsd
15 Emergency Procedures
Q: ``What should I do if the door
comes open in flight?''
A: ``Fly the airplane''.
15.1 Engine Out ProceduresThis section discusses what you should do if your
engine quits while you are airborne.1
This mainly applies to single-engine airplanes; additional procedures
for multi-engine airplanes are covered in chapter 17.
15.1.1 Emergency ChecklistIt is important to have an emergency checklist You should commit it to
memory, and review it right before each flight. Do not wait until you
are confronted with a ``deafening silence'' to figure out what is on
the emergency checklist, and why.
If your aircraft manuals do not provide a suitable
emergency checklist, you might consider adopting something along
the following lines:
This list has been designed to make it easy to memorize.
You should make every effort to commit it to memory, so that
if somebody wakes you up in the middle of the night and asks you
``what is the emergency checklist'' you should be able
to shout, instantly, ``AVIATE, NAVIGATE, INVESTIGATE, COMMUNICATE,
- Aviate — best-glide
KIAS and trim; configure.
- Navigate — pick a
field; turn toward it.
- Investigate — carb.
heat, boost, tanks, primer, mags, mixture
- Communicate — 7700,
121.5 or current.
- Secure — gear up for
short, soft or water;
throttle, mixture, mags, master, tanks — off;
belts — snug.
The first item, Aviate, is clearly the first priority. No
matter what happens next, you want to be in control of the aircraft
when it happens. There are lots of scenarios where an engine failure
results in a critically low airspeed (especially if somebody is dumb
enough to try to maintain the pre-failure pitch attitude, or (worse)
the pre-failure altitude while deciding whether or not there has been
a failure). If the airspeed is low you must re-establish the
proper glide speed2
immediately, even if it means cashing in some precious altitude.
The opposite extreme is possible, too; namely it is quite possible
that at the time the emergency begins, the aircraft is going much
faster than the best-glide speed. This is not so immediately
dangerous, but the longer you take the establish the proper glide
speed the more energy will be thrown away in the form of unnecessary
parasite drag. In this case, gently zoom upward, converting airspeed
to altitude. Retrim.
In addition to trimming for the correct airspeed, you should configure
everything else appropriately, as discussed in section 15.1.2.
The second item, Navigate, is clearly next
in importance. In section 15.1.4 there is a discussion
of clever techniques for judging which fields are within gliding
range — but you should not pick a field at the limits of this
range if there is anything suitable that is close. In particular,
start by looking down at a 45 degree angle, or even straight down.
If it is right below you, it is probably within gliding range!
The next item is Investigate. Sometimes when
the engine quits, you know immediately what the problem is. Ninety
percent of engine stoppages are due to fuel problems, so you should
reflexively switch tanks
and turn on the boost pump as appropriate.
Then turn on the carburetor heat, because it is
while the engine is still warm. Then go left-to-right across
the panel, checking everything in turn. Make sure the primer
is in and locked. See if the engine runs better on the left
magneto, right magneto, or both. See if it is happier with a leaner or
richer mixture. Give everything a once-over
before spending too
much time on one particular item, unless you are pretty sure you
know what the problem is. And above all, don't forget to fly
The next item is Communicate. If you are
already in contact with a controller, it is almost certainly a
good idea to stay on that frequency. If, on the other hand, you
have any doubt about what frequency to use, go immediately to
the international distress frequency, 121.5 MHz. That's what
it's there for.
Similarly, if you have been assigned your own squawk code, don't
bother to change it unless ATC asks
you to. On the other hand if you are presently on the all-purpose
code 1200, do not hesitate to switch to the emergency code,
7700. That rings alarm bells
(literally) at ATC and highlights you on the controller's radar
Some people argue you should Communicate even before you
Investigate. Certainly if you are in instrument meteorological
conditions you should tell the ATC of your predicament even before you
Navigate, (1) so they can vector you to a
landing field and (2) so they can clear out the airspace below you.
The fifth item on the list is Secure. It
is amazing how easy it is to forget this item. Wouldn't you hate
to make a beautiful power-off approach to an ideal field — and
then forget to extend the landing gear?
At 100 feet AGL, make sure you pull the throttle and mixture to idle
cut-off. The main reason is that you don't want the engine to roar
back to life just after touchdown. This could easily happen if (for
example) there had been a fuel shortage, and the flare freed up some
fuel from a corner of the tank. The reason for doing it at 100 feet
AGL is to give the engine a chance to cool down, reducing the risk of
a post-crash fire. Closing the fuel-tank shutoff valve helps reduce the risk of
fire — but in most planes it is not a sufficiently quick way
of stopping the engine so be sure to pull the throttle and mixture
Shutting off the engine will be difficult; it will require overcoming
a huge psychological barrier. After all, you've
spent the last several minutes trying to restart the engine, and now
you are supposed to shut it off. Make sure you have made this
decision in advance: promise you will shut the engine off at 100 AGL.
Switching off the master also reduces (somewhat) the risk of fire, but
in an aircraft with electric flaps and/or landing gear, you might want
to save the master switch for last.
15.1.2 Configuring for GlideIn the ``clean'' configuration, the airplane will be able to glide
much farther, perhaps twice as far as in the ``dirty'' configuration.
If you start out at low altitude, twice nothing is nothing, so it may
not be worth messing with the configuration; just configure for
landing and be done with it.
On the other hand, if you start out at a reasonable altitude and are
trying to glide a long ways, then you want flaps retracted,
landing gear retracted, and propeller in the
coarse pitch (low RPM) position.
Some other books say that once the flaps are down, you should leave
them down; they point out that at a low airspeed (below the bottom of
the green arc) retracting the flaps will cause an immediate stall.
I look at it somewhat differently. This situation actually arose on
my private pilot checkride. I was at 1000 AGL, with two notches of
flaps extended for landing. Then Tower asked me to extend my
downwind. By the time I was able to turn final, I was nearly two
miles from the airport. At this point the examiner caused a simulated
I went through the following thought process:
At that point I shoved forward on the yoke. Zero angle of attack.
Zero G. The examiner started gently floating out of his seat. I
retracted the flaps all at once. I continued the zero-G pushover
until we approached the canonical best-glide airspeed. Then I raised
the nose, trimmed for best glide, and quickly ran the rest of the
emergency checklist. I even rolled in some left rudder trim.
- It's a long way to the airport. If I don't do everything
right, we won't make it.
- It is important to glide at the right airspeed. I know what
the best glide speed is in the clean configuration, but I have no
idea what the best glide speed is in the current configuration.
- I'll bet there is no such thing as best glide in this
configuration. I've got to get the flaps up.
- The airplane stalls at a definite angle of attack. No
airplane ever stalled at zero angle of attack. It's mathematically
- I've got full control over angle of attack. Watch this!
The glide took us to a place in the weeds about 100 yards short of the
runway. I flew right down into ground effect and then flared. While
skimming in ground effect I extended the flaps. When we reached the
runway the stall warning was already on. I plopped onto the
runway. We were stopped before reaching the big painted number.
The point of this story is this: If you need to glide a long ways,
retract the flaps. Just do it in such a way that you don't
You can, of course, glide with flaps and/or gear extended if you want
to make a steep approach to a
Also, when you are through gliding (i.e. when you are ready to flare),
make sure the flaps are extended, so you can touch down at the lowest
For landing on water, in most airplanes you want the gear up. For
landing on most other surfaces, you want the gear down. Don't wait
until the last moment to put them down; with the engine off it might
take longer than usual to get them down. Make sure you know how to
use the manual gear extension system on your airplane.
15.1.3 Return to Airport?We now focus on the special case of engine failure
shortly after departure, since that is a relatively common and
very critical case. Many people are tempted to turn back to the
airport, but this is not usually the right answer.
The right answer depends on many factors, including:
Every situation is different, so the following analysis can't possibly
fit them all exactly. On the other hand, it is worth your while to
plan in advance. Know what your options are. For each phase of
flight, make sure you have a backup plan (``Plan B'') appropriate to
the situation. Be ready to carry out Plan B at a moment's notice.
- the wind
- the length of the runway
- the capabilities of the airplane
- whether or not partial power is still available
- the capabilities of the pilot
Here is a piece of simple but important advice: if
you can land straight ahead, do so. As an extreme example, consider
this: a small plane departing from runway 31L at JFK (length:
14,600 feet) could climb to 500 feet, lose the engine, and still
land straight ahead on the same runway with plenty of room left
Here's another piece of simple advice: don't turn
back unless you are sure you can make it — and there are lots
of situations where you can't make it.
For example, consider a fully loaded Cessna 152.
It has a power-off glide ratio of ten to one. Unfortunately,
in no-wind conditions the climb gradient is less than ten
to one. Therefore, even if the airplane could turn on a dime,
at every point on the return trip the airplane would be below
where it had been on the outbound trip. Then when you take into
consideration the altitude lost while getting the airplane turned
around, it is easy to see why the airplane cannot possibly return
to the point where it left the ground.
Under such conditions, the farther you have flown
on the departure leg, the more options you have for an off-airport
landing, and the more impossible the turnback becomes.
An important factor to take into account is that
a simple 180 degree turn does not suffice to return you to the
departure runway. The airplane will travel an appreciable distance
sideways during the turn. You won't need to do a full-blown
procedure turn, but you will need to do some additional maneuvering
that makes an already-bad situation worse.
Given a sufficiently long runway, the airplane may
be able to return to a point on the runway closer to the departure
end — which is just fine. Again, imagine departing runway 31L
at JFK, and climbing straight ahead. Suppose the engine quits
at a point 1/2 mile beyond the departure end of the runway. At
that point you should have more than a thousand feet of altitude.
You should be able to reverse course and make a downwind landing
near the beginning of runway 13R4 even though you could not
glide back to the point where you lifted off.
A modest headwind on departure will help keep the
airplane near the airport during the outbound leg, and will help
hurry it back to the airport during the return trip. This sounds
wonderful, because it increases the possibility that you can glide
back to the runway. The trouble is that (whether or not you make
it back to the airport) you are faced with a downwind landing.
Even a modest amount of tailwind (say 15 knots) can have a tremendous
effect. Suppose your airplane is capable of touching down at
55 knots. If you land into the wind, you have a groundspeed of
40 knots, but if you land downwind you have a groundspeed of 70
knots. Runway usage depends on the square of the groundspeed,
so the downwind landing will use three times as much runway:
(70/40)2 = 3.06. Also, in a collision, the amount
of damage and injury is typically proportional to the square of
the groundspeed — so if you turn downwind and don't manage
to land on the runway you are in very big trouble indeed.
Here's another option for you to consider: suppose that your airport
has a second runway running crosswise to the active runway. If your
engine fails somewhere over the cross runway, you
might be able to turn 90 degrees and land on it.
Even in less ideal cases, it is quite likely that
a crosswind landing on a different runway (or even a taxiway)
is easier and safer than a downwind landing on the departure runway.
If you are really concerned about engine failure
during the departure climb, and the airport is the only safe landing
zone for miles around, you should begin a gentle turn almost immediately
after liftoff. Then if the engine quits, you're closer to the
airport and you've got a more convenient heading. I don't recommend
this in general, because engine failure is not the only consideration.
For starters, we need to worry about causing a mid-air collision
in the pattern. A turning departure climb toward the traffic-pattern
side of the runway would cause you to enter the downwind leg from
below at just about the point where inbound traffic is entering
from the 45 degree leg.
In many cases, engine trouble results in partial
rather than total power loss. You have to decide whether
continued operation of the damaged engine is safe, but if so, it gives
you some more options. Even if the aircraft is not capable of
climbing on the remaining power, the rate of descent may be
dramatically reduced. Think of the aircraft as a noisy
glider with a good glide ratio. It may be capable
of ``gliding'' to places that a totally unpowered aircraft could not.
I reiterate: don't try to turn back to the airport
unless you are sure you can make it, and in most typical cases
you can't. You should find a nice road or field and put it down
under control. It helps a lot if you have practiced forced landings,
so you know the power-off performance of your airplane and how
to land from non-ideal approaches.
Another very serious consideration is this: reversing course smoothly
wastes valuable time and energy, whereas reversing course quickly
requires radical maneuvering. Nobody wants to recommend that pilots
perform radical maneuvering at low airspeeds close to the ground in an
unplanned situation. It might help you return to the runway, but
there is a much greater chance that it will provoke a
stall/spin accident. An off-airport
landing is not usually fatal, whereas a stall/spin accident usually
Another reason for not attempting to turn back is that most people are
so surprised by an engine failure that it takes them a few seconds to
regain their wits. During this interval, precious time,
energy, and distance have been wasted, so even though it might
originally have been possible to turn back, it no longer is.
Indeed, (unless you are very well trained) your first reaction will be
completely wrong — not just late, but dead wrong. When the engine
quits, the airplane's nose will tend to drop. The flight path has
changed from, say, a 10-to-1 climb to a 10-to-1 descent, so to
maintain constant angle of attack the nose must drop a huge
amount — 12 degrees. You may think ``Gee, I don't want the nose to
drop'' and may be tempted to pull back on the yoke. This is a sure
way to kill yourself. Please, do not think of the yoke as the
up/down control. When the engine
quits, the airplane is going to descend. The only question is whether
you will spin in, or glide to a controlled touchdown. Remember, you
can survive an off-airport landing if you touch down under control.
The obvious reason why you want to maintain control
is that the rate of descent you get in a normal glide is much
less than what you get if you stall and let it ``drop in''
— not to mention what you get in a spin.
A less obvious but still very important consideration is this: If the
airplane is not under proper control, it is likely that one wingtip
will hit before anything else. This will cause the aircraft to
cartwheel, causing tremendously more damage and injuries than if you
had landed under control and just skidded to a stop.
It is important to have a plan. At the airport(s) you use regularly,
scout out the territory near the departure paths, and formulate a plan
for where you will land if the engine quits. (Further discussion of
the power-off glide appears in the next section.)
In any case, you need a plan for what to do with
the controls. Your first priority is to maintain a proper angle
of attack. Do not attempt to hold the nose up; let the nose go
down (or push briefly to help it go down). Fine tune the pitch
attitude and trim to maintain the best-glide airspeed.
Land into the wind if possible.
15.1.4 Power-Off Glide Perception and PlanningIn a forced-landing situation, your glide path will be rather steep.
The lift-to-drag ratio of typical Skyhawk or Cherokee (in best-glide
configuration) is about 10-to-1, which corresponds to an angle of six
degrees. This is perhaps twice as steep as a typical power-on
approach. It is even somewhat steeper than the typical ``power off''
approach, since that normally really means ``engine idle'' and an
engine at idle produces noticeably more power (and less drag) than an
engine that is really off.
We can use the rule of thumb: a thumb at arm's length subtends
four degrees.5 As shown in figure 15.1, you can just
barely glide to any point
that is a thumb and a half below the horizon (assuming no-wind
conditions). If your engine quits, you should run your thumb around
the horizon to help you select possible landing sites.
In the presence of wind, the circle of possible landing
sites will be shifted downwind from the circle described in the
previous paragraph. Suppose you are gliding at 60 knots (airspeed)
into a 30-knot headwind. Your groundspeed has been cut in half,
so your glide will be twice as steep as in the no-wind case.
Your destination must now be at least three thumbs below the horizon.
It is well worth knowing how far you can glide. Suppose you are
roughly one mile up, so that you can glide ten miles. There is more
area in the ring between seven and ten miles away than there is in the
entire disk between zero and seven. (On the other hand, if find a
close field, go for it. Don't glide a long way just because you can.)
Now let's assume you have picked a field and are
gliding toward it. Now your ability to perceive angles really
pays off. Whereas in a normal approach you use engine power to
maintain a pre-determined glide angle and destination, in a
maximum-distance glide the glide angle is fixed and you want to
perceive what the destination is.
Here is the key idea: there will be some landmark
that remains some fixed angle below the
horizon, and that
is the point toward which you are gliding. Pick a point. If
its angle down from the horizon is decreasing, you will land short
of that point. If its angle is increasing, you will overfly that
point — unless you do something.
There are two critical reasons why you always need
to explicitly identify the point to which you are gliding. For
one, you need this information for angle of attack control. Remember,
the angle of attack is the angle between the wing and the direction
of flight. If you can't perceive the direction of flight you
won't be able to perceive the angle of attack (see chapter 2).
Secondly, you need to know whether your present glidepath will
cause you to land long or land short; the earlier you can perceive
this the sooner you can make any necessary correction.
A small correction early is better than a big correction late.
You should not pick a field that is right at the limit of the
airplane's gliding ability, because you'll wind up short if anything
goes wrong. Pick a field that is substantially closer than the limit,
since you can always lose altitude by circling, adjusting the length
of the base leg, extending flaps, slipping, et
Strategic turns are appropriate early in the game; flaps and slips
are more appropriate on short final.
S-turns on final are almost never the best way to eat
up unwanted altitude. Small-angle turns have almost no effect, and large
turns take too long to perform, and take your chosen field out
of sight temporarily. Furthermore, after two turns (one to the
left and one to the right) you will be back on your original heading,
but offset laterally; you need to make two more turns to get back
on course. If you have time and altitude to do all that, there
are better things to be doing.
If you are on long final and can (using flaps and/or
slips) keep the field a constant angle below the horizon,
you are all set. Glide straight on in.
If you are on long final with excess energy, or if you are approaching
the field from a substantial angle relative to the intended direction
of landing, do not aim directly for the field. Aim
for the so-called base key point (figure 15.2),
i.e. the point where the base leg begins.
From the base key point, you have a lot of options. If you arrive
with the ideal amount of energy, you can fly a nice base leg and
then turn final. If you arrive with slightly more or less energy
than that, you can angle the base leg away from or toward the
field. Fly along the base leg until the desired destination is
the appropriate angle below the horizon, then turn final.6
Another point that is made in the figure is that you can use the
width of the landing field to your advantage. You may
be unaccustomed to this, since at an airport the tradition is
to land always as close as possible to the runway centerline.
Also, do not plan your final approach to take you to the threshold
of your chosen field. No matter how long or short the field,
aim for a point one third of the way along the field.
Remember there are lots of things that could steal energy from your
glide, and you really don't want to land short.
It is better to hit the trees at the far end at 20 knots
than to hit the trees at the near end at 60 knots.
The energy, the expected damage, and the expected injuries all
depend on the square of the airspeed, so the 20-knot collision
involves nine times less energy than the 60-knot collision.
The main reason why you might wind up landing short (despite a
well-planned glide) is the infamous decreasing
headwind on final, as mentioned
in section 12.12. If you are gliding at 70 knots, and you
lose just ten knots due to a windshear, you will have to descend 60
feet to regain your proper airspeed.7 That 60 vertical feet (at a ten-to-one glide
ratio) corresponds to 600 feet of horizontal travel. If you are
unprepared for it, finding yourself 10 knots slow, 60 feet low, and/or
600 feet short during a forced landing is no fun.
15.2 Preventing Emergencies
15.2.1 Safety MarginsYou need to have margins of safety and layers of
protection. You don't want to be in a situation where any one failure
causes harm. You always want to have not just plan A, but also plan
B, plan C, plan D, et cetera.
You should pay attention to anything that peels away one or more
layers of safety. Keep track of how many layers remain.
The left magneto is a backup for the right magneto, and vice
- You have multiple sources of navigation information
(pilotage, dead reckoning,
VOR, GPS, ATC radar)
which can be cross-checked against each other.
- During preflight, you use a dipstick to cross-check the
fuel gauge. Enroute, you use the expected fuel-burn
rate and a clock to cross-check the fuel
If one magneto fails, park the airplane until it is fixed!
If the fuel gauges cannot be trusted, park the airplane until it is
fixed! Do not rely on clock-and-dipstick alone. By the same token,
do not rely on the gauges alone.
15.2.2 Fuel ManagementFar and away the most common reason for losing engine
power is fuel mismanagement. This includes running out
of fuel as well as contamination of the fuel. The good news is
that such problems are relatively easy to prevent.
It pays to be careful. I am pretty methodical about
checking the fuel sumps. I used to check for little droplets
of water at the bottom of the sampler. Once, after completing
the check, I was about to dump out the sampler and begin the flight,
but I decided to take a closer look. Then I noticed tiny drops
floating at the top of the sampler. It turns out the entire
tube was full of water, with just a tiny bit of fuel mixed in.
I went back to the plane and got another tube of water, and another,
and another. It turns out that the fuel vendor had just switched to a
new pump/tank system, and had sold me more than a quart of water
(at AVGAS prices!) along with the fuel.
So, here are some suggestions:
Check the fuel sumps if the aircraft has been
sitting overnight or longer. Humid air in the tanks can condense
at night. The problem is worse if the tanks are less than 100%
full, because that leaves more room for air. Because of the daily
temperature changes, new air gets into the tank each day. The
condensed water, hiding underneath the fuel, does not re-evaporate
— it just accumulates day after day.
- Check the sumps if the aircraft has been refueled
since the last flight.
- If you do detect water after refueling, notify
the fuel vendor immediately, so that one of your less-meticulous fellow
pilots doesn't get harmed. Then, wait a few minutes and check
your tanks again. A fair amount of water can be suspended in
the fuel in the form of tiny droplets that take a while to settle
- Check the fuel sumps if the airplane has been
sitting in the rain even for a short time. The filler caps have
been known to let water leak in.
- Check the color of the fuel. Different octane
grades are color-coded differently. The color is rather pale,
so it may help to look lengthwise down a long column of fuel.
- Check the odor of the fuel. If it smells like
jet fuel, watch out. There have been many cases where an airplane
that runs on AVGAS has been mis-fueled with Jet-A. The engine
may run on the mixture for a while, but it will be rapidly destroyed
because of detonation in the cylinders.
- If you suspect here is a mixture of Jet-A along with AVGAS
in your tank, here's how you can check:
Put a drop or two of the suspect fuel on a piece of paper. For
comparison, put a similar amount of known pure AVGAS on the paper
nearby. The AVGAS should evaporate rather quickly. The Jet-A,
if any, will remain behind, leaving a translucent spot on the
- There are several ways to detect a sample that
is 100% water. For one, the water will not have the right color,
since the fuel color-code dyes are insoluble in water. Secondly,
water has a noticeably different density and viscosity — it just
doesn't ``slosh'' the same way. It also doesn't evaporate
at the same rate. Last but not least, you can add a drop of
water to your
fuel sampler and make sure it goes to the bottom.
- Before each flight, peer into the tank to make
absolutely sure the fuel quantity is OK. Cross-check what
you see against the gauges. One fellow I know bought gas and
got ready to take off, but noticed that the tanks were nearly
empty. The service crew had refueled the wrong plane. Another fellow
filled the tanks on Sunday and went to fly again on Friday. The
tanks were nearly empty because of a leak.
- Don't switch tanks
takeoff. On typical airplanes the engine can run for two or
three minutes just using the fuel stored in the carburetor
and engine sumps. That's just long enough to get you into big trouble
if you use tank ``A'' for taxi and runup, and then switch
to tank ``B'' for takeoff. What if tank ``B''
is contaminated? What if it is empty? What if there is a blockage
in the lines? What if you accidentally select ``Off''
instead of ``B'' during the switch? Et cetera, et cetera.... If there is
a problem with tank ``B'', you'd like to find out about
it before starting your takeoff roll.
If you absolutely must switch to tank ``B'' for takeoff, do a
duplicate runup on that tank, and wait long enough to consume the fuel
in the lines and sumps and prove that you are actually getting fuel
from tank ``B''.
- By the same token, it isn't smart to switch to
a new tank on final approach. Plan ahead; do your tank-switching
at an altitude and at a location where if something bad happens
you'll have a chance to do something about it.
15.3 Dealing with EmergenciesAs suggested in the epigraph to this chapter, the
first step in dealing with any in-flight emergency is to fly
This sounds simple and obvious, but there have been
far too many cases where the aircraft stalled or flew into the
terrain because the pilots were too busy fussing with something
that should have been only a minor distraction.
For instance, what should you do if the door comes open during takeoff? Answer: fly the airplane. No
general aviation airplane I know of will crash because the door is
ajar. The door will be held open about an inch or so. There will be
enough suction to make it rather hard to close that last inch. There
will be a bit of noise and a bit of a draft, but perhaps less than you
might imagine. You might not even notice at first. In any case, the
safest thing to do is to ignore all the details and return for
landing. When you are safely stopped you can fiddle with the door as
much as you like.
As another example, suppose you are just about to turn onto final
approach when you notice that only two of the three landing
gear are indicating ``down
and locked''. What should you do? Go around! Do not try to debug the
landing gear on final. For that matter, do not try to debug
anything in the traffic pattern — it is too close to the
ground and (usually) too congested. Get out of there. If there is a
control tower, don't forget to tell ATC what's happening: ``Tower, Five Seven Tango has some
uncertainty with the landing gear.8 We'd like to leave the
pattern while we investigate''. Then climb to a reasonable altitude,
away from the airport, and take your time fixing the problem.
trouble (or other trouble) during the takeoff roll is discussed
in section 13.8, especially section 13.8.4.
Being lost, which might or might not be an emergency, is discussed in section 14.6.
- As part of the
pre-takeoff briefing, remind yourself of the
best-glide airspeed for the airplane you
are flying. It varies a lot from plane to plane. Find this speed on
the airspeed indicator and point to it. (Don't just remember the
numerical value, because in an actual emergency you will probably be
so excited that you lose your ability to remember numbers. Your
ability to remember geometrical relationships will be less impaired.)
- In retrospect, I wish I hadn't
pushed quite so hard. A half-G pushover would have been more than
sufficient, and would have kept the examiner from floating out of his
seat. But basically I had the right idea.
- i.e. the
direction on the same piece of pavement.
- See section 12.3 for more discussion of how
to measure angles.
- Note this method gives you control of your destination
using at most two large-angle turns, whereas S-turns on final
would require using four.
- Remember the law of the
roller-coaster: 9 feet per knot,
per hundred knots.
- On a training
flight, you might want to let Tower know it is only a simulated
problem, so they don't get unduly worried. When in doubt, ask the
instructor, but usually you know it's a simulation because of the
satanic grin on the instructor's face.
[Comments or questions]
Copyright © 1996-2001 jsd