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Copyright 1996-2001 jsd


John S. Denker

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Original Web Address

See How It Flies

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A new spin on the perceptions, procedures, and principles of flight. hud-turn





Contents


Introduction
Readership, Topics, and Objectives
How to Use this Book

1  Energy Awareness and Energy Management
1.1  Total Energy Cannot Change
1.2  Energy Conversion
1.2.1  Converting Speed to Altitude and Back
1.2.2  Energy Per Unit Mass
1.2.3  Converting Fuel to Altitude
1.2.4  Power versus Energy
1.2.5  Drag and the Power Curve — Introduction
1.2.6  Rates of Energy Conversion
1.3  Effect of Controls on Energy
1.3.1  Power Budget — Using the Engine
1.3.2  The Effects of the Throttle
1.3.3  The Effects of the Yoke
1.3.4  Sizes of Energy Reservoirs
1.4  Energy Management Strategy
1.5  Summary: Energy Management

2  Angle of Attack Awareness and Angle of Attack Management
2.1  The Importance of Angle of Attack
2.2  Definition of Angle of Attack
2.3  Trim for Angle of Attack!
2.4  Three Contributions to Angle of Attack
2.5  Perceiving Pitch Angle
2.6  Making Changes in Angle of Attack
2.7  Fly with a Light Touch
2.8  Trim Won't Solve All The World's Problems
2.9  Pitch Attitude versus Angle of Attack
2.10  Power plus Attitude does not equal Performance
2.11  Estimating the Relative Wind
2.12  Airspeed Is Related to Angle of Attack
2.12.1  Airspeed versus Coefficient of Lift
2.12.2  Coefficient of Lift versus Angle of Attack
2.12.3  Correcting for Reduced Density
2.12.4  Correcting for Reduced Lift Requirements
2.12.5  Correcting for Increased Lift Requirements
2.12.6  Compute with Calibrated not Indicated Airspeed
2.12.7  Correcting for Slip
2.12.8  Drag and Lift-to-Drag Ratio
2.13  Not Everything Depends on Angle of Attack
2.13.1  Explicit Airspeed Limits
2.13.2  Maneuvering Speed
2.13.3  Overview of Limits and Performance Numbers
2.14  Relative versus Absolute Angle of Attack
2.15  Summary

3  Airfoils and Airflow
3.1  Flow Patterns Near a Wing
3.2  Pressure Patterns Near a Wing
3.3  Stream Line Curvature
3.4  Bernoulli's Principle
3.4.1  Magnitude
3.4.2  Altimeters; Static versus Stagnation Pressure
3.4.3  Compressibility
3.5  Stall Warning Devices
3.6  Air Is A Fluid, Not A Bunch of Bullets
3.7  Other Fallacies
3.8  Inverted Flight, Cambered vs. Symmetric Airfoils
3.9  Thin Wings
3.10  Circulation
3.10.1  Visualizing the circulation
3.10.2  How Much Circulation? The Kutta Condition
3.10.3  How Much Lift? The Kutta-Zhukovsky Theorem
3.10.4  Quantifying the Circulation
3.11  Mechanically-Induced Circulation
3.12  Lift Requires Circulation & Vortices
3.12.1  Vortices
3.12.2  Wake Turbulence
3.12.3  Induced Drag
3.12.4  Soft-Field Takeoff
3.13  Frost on the Wings
3.14  Consistent (Not Cumulative) Laws of Physics
3.15  Momentum in the Air
3.16  Summary: How a Wing Produces Lift

4  Lift, Thrust, Weight, and Drag
4.1  Definitions
4.2  Balance of Forces
4.3  Types of Drag
4.4  Coefficients, Forces, and Power
4.5  Induced vs. Parasite Drag

5  Vertical Damping, Roll Damping, and Stalls
5.1  Introduction and Overview
5.2  Vertical Damping
5.2.1  Origins of Vertical Damping
5.2.2  Loss of Vertical Damping
5.3  The Stall
5.3.1  Definition of Stall
5.3.2  Flying Beyond the Stall?
5.4  Roll Damping
5.4.1  Origins of Roll Damping
5.4.2  Loss of Roll Damping
5.4.3  Schemes to Increase Roll Damping
5.5  The Effect of Flaps
5.5.1  Effect on Stalling Speed
5.5.2  Effect on Incidence
5.5.3  Effect on Washout
5.5.4  Effect on Drag
5.5.5  Effect on Trim
5.6  Summary

6  Angle of Attack Stability, Trim, and Spiral Dives
6.1  The Basic Stability Principle
6.1.1  Center of Mass Too Far Aft
6.1.2  Center of Mass in the Middle
6.1.3  Center of Mass, Lift, and Area
6.1.4  Pitch-Axis Equilibrium
6.1.5  Canards Operate on the Same Principle
6.1.6  Beyond Decalage
6.1.7  Springs and Bobweights
6.1.8  Pitch Damping
6.1.9  Center of Mass Too Far Forward
6.1.10  Other Failure Modes
6.1.11  Practical Considerations
6.1.12  Phugoid Oscillations
6.2  Spiral Dive
6.2.1  Which Way Is Up?
6.2.2  Overview
6.2.3  General Discussion
6.2.4  Recovering From a Spiral Dive
6.2.5  Try It Yourself
6.3  Summary

7  More About Energy and Power
7.1  Introduction
7.2  Making Changes in Airspeed
7.2.1  Front Side of the Power Curve
7.2.2  Back Side of the Power Curve
7.2.3  Right versus Wrong Procedures
7.3  You Can Get Away With A Lot During Cruise
7.4  Let ``George'' Do It
7.5  Max Performance using the Power Curve
7.5.1  Best Rate of Climb
7.5.2  Zero Power Available
7.5.3  Best Angle of Climb
7.5.4  Power Depends on Altitude via True Airspeed
7.5.5  Other Power and Altitude Effects
7.5.6  Wind Effects
7.5.7  Weight Effects
7.6  Variations in the Power Curve
7.6.1  Power Curve Depends on Aspect Ratio
7.6.2  Sketching the Curve
7.6.3  Some Theory
7.6.4  Power Requirements versus Speed
7.6.5  Power Requirements versus Altitude
7.7  Energy Management Stunts
7.7.1  High-Speed Steep Descent
7.7.2  Low-Speed Steep Descent
7.7.3  Skimming in Ground Effect
7.8  Summary

8  Yaw-Axis Torque Budget
8.1  Overview
8.2  Yaw Stability
8.3  Yaw Damping
8.4  Helical Propwash
8.5  P-Factor
8.5.1  Blade Speed
8.5.2  Blade Angle
8.5.3  Initial Takeoff Roll
8.5.4  Observing P-Factor
8.6  Gyroscopic Precession
8.7  Canted Engine
8.8  Rudder Usage During Rolls
8.8.1  Analysis of a Roll
8.8.2  Designers' Tricks
8.8.3  Transitory Adverse Yaw
8.8.4  Steady Adverse Yaw
8.8.5  Yaw-Axis Inertia
8.8.6  Amount of Rudder Required
8.8.7  Summary: Coordinated Turning Procedures
8.9  Long-Tail Slip
8.10  Boat Turn
8.11  Weathervaning During Taxi
8.12  Asymmetric Thrust
8.13  Yaw-Axis Torque Budget — Summary

9  Roll-Axis Torque Budget
9.1  Dihedral
9.2  Other Forms of Slip-Roll Coupling
9.3  Roll-Axis Stability
9.4  Differential Wingtip Speed; Overbanking
9.5  Rolling Moment due to Propeller Drag
9.6  Engine Inertia
9.7  Climbing and Descending Turns
9.8  Roll-Axis Torque Budget — Summary

10  Equilibrium, Stability, and Damping
10.1  Equilibrium
10.2  Stability
10.3  Damping
10.4  Relationship of Stability and Damping
10.5  Oleo-Pneumatic Struts
10.6  Oscillations
10.6.1  Analysis of Dutch Roll
10.6.2  How to Fight Oscillations

11  Slips, Skids, and Snap Rolls
11.1  A Lesson on Snap Rolls
11.2  Intentional Slips
11.3  Skids
11.4  Anticipate Correct Rudder Usage
11.5  Perceiving Slip, Perceiving Coordination
11.5.1  Looking Out the Side
11.5.2  Looking Out the Front
11.5.3  Using the Inclinometer Ball
11.5.4  Using the Seat of Your Pants
11.5.5  Intentional Slips
11.5.6  Slip Angle versus Bank Angle
11.6  Summary

12  Landing
12.1  Planning the Approach
12.2  Judging Left or Right
12.3  Judging High or Low; Rule of Thumb
12.4  Judging Pitch Attitude and Angle of Attack
12.4.1  Use Outside References and Trim
12.4.2  Observe and Control More Than One Thing
12.4.3  Correct for Wind
12.5  Other Perceptions
12.6  Basic ``Normal'' Landing
12.6.1  Short Final
12.6.2  Flare
12.6.3  Timing the Flare
12.6.4  Touchdown and Rollout
12.7  High-Performance Landing
12.7.1  Use the Right Configuration
12.7.2  Touch Down at the Right Point
12.7.3  Touch Down at a Low Speed
12.7.4  Use the Brakes
12.7.5  Summary: High-Performance Landing
12.8  Soft-field Landing
12.9  Crosswind Landing
12.10  Going Around
12.11  Learning to Land the Airplane
12.11.1  Maneuver by Reference to the Edge
12.11.2  Hesitation Takeoff
12.11.3  Practice Maneuvering at Altitude
12.11.4  Practice Flaring and Stalling at Altitude
12.11.5  Practice Flying in the Runway Environment
12.11.6  Learn Soft-Field Procedure First
12.11.7  Nose-High Rollout
12.11.8  Recovering from an Evil Zoom
12.11.9  Salvaging an Imperfect Flare
12.12  Fly with a Light Touch
12.13  Critique Your Own Landings

13  Takeoff
13.1  Simplest Takeoff
13.2  Normal Takeoff
13.3  Obstructed-Field Takeoff
13.4  Soft-Field Takeoff
13.5  Crosswind Technique
13.6  Multi-Engine Takeoff
13.7  Other Elements of the Takeoff
13.8  Decisionmaking
13.8.1  Monitoring Takeoff Performance (wrong)
13.8.2  Monitoring Takeoff Performance (right)
13.8.3  Causes of Diminished Power
13.8.4  Plan & Practice Rejected Takeoffs
13.9  Summary

14  Cross-Country Flying
14.1  Pilotage
14.1.1  Airports Make Good Landmarks
14.1.2  One-Dimensional Landmarks
14.1.3  Choose Distinctive Landmarks
14.1.4  Doglegs
14.1.5  Reality-Based Navigation
14.2  Dead Reckoning
14.2.1  Course
14.2.2  Distance, Time, and Airspeed
14.2.3  Crosswind Correction
14.2.4  The Wind Triangle
14.2.5  Discussion
14.3  Navigating by Instruments
14.3.1  Don't Be a Gauge Junkie
14.3.2  Navigation Systems
14.3.3  Off-Course Distance
14.3.4  Intended Heading
14.3.5  Cross Radials
14.3.6  Twisted VORs
14.4  Combined Techniques
14.5  Staying Un-Lost
14.6  Getting Un-Lost
14.6.1  Basics
14.6.2  When in Doubt, Climb
14.6.3  GPS or LORAN
14.6.4  VOR Cross Radials or VOR/DME
14.6.5  Ask ATC

15  Emergency Procedures
15.1  Engine Out Procedures
15.1.1  Emergency Checklist
15.1.2  Configuring for Glide
15.1.3  Return to Airport?
15.1.4  Power-Off Glide Perception and Planning
15.2  Preventing Emergencies
15.2.1  Safety Margins
15.2.2  Fuel Management
15.3  Dealing with Emergencies

16  Flight Maneuvers
16.1  Fundamentals
16.2  Accelerating and Decelerating
16.3  Phugoids
16.4  Crabbing Along a Road
16.5  Slipping Along a Road
16.6  Turns
16.7  Coordination Exercises
16.8  Familiarization Exercises; Configuration Changes
16.9  Turns around a Point
16.10  Eights Around Pylons
16.11  Chandelles
16.12  Lazy Eights
16.13  Eights on Pylons
16.13.1  Turns on a Pylon
16.13.2  Eights on Pylons
16.14  Changing Headwinds and Tailwinds
16.14.1  Steady Wind
16.14.2  Albatross Effect: Winds that Vary with Altitude
16.14.3  Turning Downwind; Energy Budget
16.14.4  Summary: Changing Headwinds and Tailwinds
16.15  Remarks: Ground Reference Maneuvers
16.15.1  Accounting for the Wind
16.15.2  Entry Strategy
16.15.3  Visual Reference
16.15.4  Checklist
16.16  Slow Flight
16.16.1  Airspeed and Altitude
16.16.2  Yaw and Roll
16.16.3  Procedures and Perceptions
16.17  Stall Practice
16.17.1  Preliminaries
16.17.2  Provoking a Distinct Stall
16.17.3  Stall Recovery
16.17.4  Power-On Stalls
16.17.5  Accelerated Stalls
16.17.6  Evil Zooms

17  Multi-Engine Flying
17.1  Normal Operations
17.2  Engine Out Scenarios
17.2.1  Rejected Takeoff; Balanced vs. Unbalanced Field
17.2.2  Climb
17.2.3  Slip String
17.2.4  Coordination
17.2.5  Perception and Initial Response
17.2.6  Yaw Control at Reduced Speeds
17.2.7  Minimum Control Speed — Definitions
17.2.8  Effect of Altitude, Weight, etc.
17.2.9  Effect of Center of Mass
17.2.10  Effect of Drag (e.g. Landing Gear)
17.2.11  Critical Engine
17.3  Engine Out Procedures
17.3.1  Procedure: Low Altitude
17.3.2  Procedure: Higher Altitude
17.3.3  Airspeed Management
17.3.4  Engine-Out Go-Arounds
17.3.5  Low-Speed Engine-Out Demonstrations

18  Stalls and Spins
18.1  Stalls: Causes and Effects
18.2  Stalling Part vs. All of the Wing
18.3  Boundary Layers
18.3.1  Separated versus Attached Flow
18.3.2  Laminar versus Turbulent Flow
18.3.3  Boundary Layer Control
18.3.4  Summary
18.4  Coanda Effect, etc.
18.4.1  Tissue-paper Demonstration
18.4.2  Blowing the Boundary Layer
18.4.3  Teaspoon Demonstration
18.4.4  Fallacious Model of Lift Production
18.4.5  Summary
18.5  Spin Entry
18.6  Types of Spin
18.6.1  Spin Modes
18.6.2  Samaras, Flat Spins, and Centrifugal Force
18.6.3  NASA Spin Studies
18.6.4  Effects of Spin-Axis Changes
18.7  Recovering from a Spin
18.8  Don't Mess With Spins

19  The Laws of Motion
19.1  Straight-Line Motion
19.2  Sitting in a Rotating Frame
19.3  Moving in a Rotating Frame
19.4  Centrifuges with and without Gravity
19.4.1  The Centrifugal Field is Real
19.4.2  Centrifuge
19.4.3  Centrifuge and Gravity
19.5  Centrifugal Effects in a Turning Airplane
19.6  Angles and Axes
19.6.1  Axes: Yaw, Pitch, and Roll
19.6.2  Attitude: Heading, Pitch, Bank
19.6.3  Angle Terminology
19.6.4  Yaw Does Not Commute with Pitch
19.6.5  Yaw Does Not Commute with Bank
19.7  Torque and Moment
19.8  Angular Momentum
19.9  Gyroscopes
19.9.1  Precession
19.9.2  The Torque is 90 Degrees Ahead of the Motion
19.9.3  Angular Momentum is the Key Idea
19.9.4  Inertial Platform
19.10  Gyroscopic Instruments
19.10.1  Heading Indicator
19.10.2  Artificial Horizon
19.10.3  Rate-of-Turn Gyro

20  The Atmosphere
20.1  Circulation Around Fronts and Low Pressure Centers
20.1.1  Flow Around a Low
20.1.2  Fronts and Troughs
20.2  Pressure and Winds Aloft
20.2.1  Thermal Gradient Wind
20.2.2  High Altimeter due to Low Temperature
20.3  Prevailing Winds and Seasonal Winds
20.3.1  Primary Circulation Patterns
20.3.2  Continental / Oceanic Patterns
20.4  Summary

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